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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive activity, impulsivity and inability to concentrate. This increase in activity and low concentration lead to disturbances in the social, educational and / or professional functioning of an individual. It is known to be the most commonly diagnosed brain disorder in childhood. It usually affects people in children, but it can cause dysfunction in adulthood if left untreated.

Children diagnosed with ADHD experience symptoms of excessive excitement, attention difficulties for longer periods and difficulty controlling impulses. These difficulties hinder his ability to make friends, get good grades at school and perform daily tasks. Similarly, adults with ADHD also have poor management of time, goals and organizational skills. It also becomes difficult for these adults to keep a job. Problems of self-esteem and relationships also tend to arise. In addition, trends in chemical or non-chemical dependence are also evident in adults with ADHD symptoms.

There are a number of factors that contribute to the development of ADHD. Studies have suggested that ADHD may be a genetic disorder; However, no specific gene for ADHD has been identified. In addition to genetic reasons, brain damage is also considered one of the main causes of ADHD development. In addition, environmental factors were also considered one of the triggers for the development of ADHD, such as high exposure to toxic chemicals such as the use of lead or alcohol / drugs during pregnancy. ADHD is more common among boys than girls. Often, parents or teachers identify him during the first years of schooling among children due to his inability to pay attention to studies or classroom activities.

Many comorbid diseases can also develop with ADHD, including anxiety disorders, behavioral disorders, learning problems, mood disorders and substance use disorders. It is essential to understand the symptoms of ADHD to identify this disorder. The symptoms of ADHD are characterized in three groups: lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The category of lack of attention includes lack of persistence, difficulty maintaining orientation and organization problems, tendency to postpone, inability to complete the required tasks related to school work or other housekeeping tasks, the transition from an unfinished business to another and the reluctance to perform a task. following the instructions In addition, the symptoms of forgetting daily activities, easy distraction and poor concentration are also present.

The second category of ADHD, hyperactivity, includes excessive conversation, constant movement or increased motor activity, difficulty playing or sitting longer, running or walking, even if it is inappropriate, and shaking or hitting excessively. In adolescence and adulthood, hyperactivity can lead to extreme agitation.

The third category of impulsivity includes extreme impatience and action at the moment without thinking about the consequences, the difficulties of deferred gratification, the search for immediate rewards, the interruption of others and the launching of arguments. at an inappropriate time

Although ADHD is a chronic disease; However, it is a manageable disorder that can be managed with the help of a professional, which can reduce symptoms and improve the quality of life. A combination of treatment includes medications, psychotherapy and training, as well as long-term support groups.

Medications reduce symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity. It improves the ability to concentrate, learn and work better. It involves stimulants, sometimes non-stimulants and antidepressants to control the symptoms of ADHD. Drug dose monitoring is a crucial step in the management of ADHD. However, the medication can produce even better results when used in combination with psychotherapy. Psychotherapy involves cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral therapy. CBT is a type of psychotherapy that attempts to develop an understanding of a person’s feelings and thoughts that help them improve their concentration.

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